The construction industry consumes approximately 50% of the world’s resources. Are you also aware that architecture contributes to 40 – 50% of waste and 20 – 30% of greenhouse gas emissions? Concerns about this sad state of affairs led to the growth of green architecture.
Green architecture is an architectural philosophy advocating for eco-friendly building processes. It calls for sustainable materials, energy and water conservation, and using new technology to upgrade buildings. The approach also focuses on waste reduction.
This article will explore a few topics related to green architecture. Keep reading to learn more.
What Is the Meaning of Green Architecture?
Green architecture refers to a philosophy or approach that advocates for sustainable building. Hence, it encourages architects to develop designs with the environment in mind. Green architecture aims at minimizing the adverse impacts of construction on human health and the environment.
Industrialization and human settlement have had adverse impacts on the environment.
For centuries, humans have invented ways to make their lives more comfortable on the planet, including constructing luxurious buildings. And their quest for shelter and comfort has significantly depleted the earth’s resources.
For instance, non-renewable fossil fuels have contributed to the depletion of natural reserves.
Apart from consuming resources, building causes increased waste deposits and the emission of greenhouse gases. Therefore, it has led to environmental degradation and negatively affected human health.
Also referred to as ‘green design,’ green architecture is the philosophy that attempts to counteract the adverse effects that construction has rendered on the earth.
The approach calls on humans to adopt sustainable buildings to conserve the environment. But, this initiative also seeks to improve the quality of life by reducing health and environmental hazards.
Environmentalists warn that climate change could wipe out species that cannot adapt to adverse conditions. Hence, they advocate for green architecture to conserve the environment to sustain life.
Moreover, they encourage architects to adopt sustainable designs throughout the construction process, including consultations, site surveys, plan modification, and material use.
Since green architecture has become popularized in recent years, is it a mandatory construction requirement?
There’s currently no legislature requiring architects and developers to go green. Therefore, green building is an option in most communities. They only have to adhere to the building code requirements.
Nonetheless, the American Institute of Architects (AIA) encourages architects to consider surpassing these requirements to enhance building performance and reduce its negative impact on health and the environment.
Hence, they can opt to implement green designs on all or some building components. For instance, they can invent strategies that enhance energy efficiency or water conservation.
The History of Green Architecture
Don’t mistake green architecture for modern philosophy, as it has been around for centuries.
The earliest utilization of this concept was in the ancient civilizations by people who lived in extreme environments. For example, the Montezuma Castle in Arizona was established on a remote desert cliff and comprised a passive design that controlled the interior climate.
Another example of ancient green architecture was the Arabic settlements comprising high towers and open courtyards. These served as wind crates that facilitated ventilation in the desert climate. Hence, the green design concept was historically a means of survival as it involved collecting natural light and ventilating interior spaces.
However, as humans progressed in civilization through industrialization and urbanization, they ignored the green concept. They focused more on convenience at the expense of exploiting the environment.
As a result, the adoption of other energy sources, including electricity and petroleum, contributed to environmental degradation.
Green Architecture in the 1960s
In the 1960s, a youth movement raised concerns about the perceived impact of the suburban sprawl and congestion in the United States. Moreover, most of them migrated to the rural areas to evade the greater community. They also adopted a minimalist lifestyle to reduce their impact on the environment.
Green Architecture in the 1970s
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a more integrated form of eco-activism sprung up. The pioneering activists of green architecture were Lewis Mumford, an American architectural critic/social philosopher, a British Scientist, James Lovelock, and an American landscape architect, Ian McHarg. The trio defined green design and popularized environmental concepts.
Mumford suggested a straightforward definition of green architecture that summarized their proposal of utilizing solar energy to minimize power wastage.
Moreover, McHarg framed the green architecture rules, advocating for clustered development and preserving the natural environment. And Lovelock based his Gaia hypothesis on McHugh’s “whole earth” concept that depicted the planet as an organism that had to remain sustainable to survive.
Also, in the 1970s, Arne Naess, a Norwegian philosopher, invented the “deep ecology” (ecosophy) theory, alleging that the western eco-activists had a shallow meaning of nature.
Advocating for a more profound comprehension, Naess campaigned for biological diversity since all creatures depended on each other for survival.
Despite the philosophers’ and eco-activists efforts to advocate for green architecture, the world was utilizing more fossil fuels. And by 1973, there was a crisis as the OPEC (Organization of the Oil Exporting Countries) significantly raised the cost of oil. Therefore governments started shifting their focus to alternative energy sources, including geothermal, solar, water, and wind.
Green Architecture in the 1980s and 1990s
Green advocacy accelerated in the mid-1980s when movements mushroomed, including Environmental Action, Greenpeace, and the Nature Conservancy.
Then, in 1994, the U.S Green Building Council formulated the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standards. So this was a significant breakthrough for architects and builders since they now had the criteria for designing and constructing eco-friendly buildings.
Green Architecture Today
Today, green architecture has become an essential consideration in the construction industry. There’s currently a global focus on advocating and popularizing this concept. Therefore, more and more architects are shifting to crafting sustainable designs with environmental conservation in mind.
Characteristics of Green Architecture
As discussed, green architecture advocates for the construction of sustainable buildings. Therefore, architects have experimented with numerous designs that incorporate green features. Most developments may include a few or several sustainable parts, but the basis for any green construction model considers the natural ecology concept.
Now, let’s look at the common characteristics of green architecture:
Sustainable Site Development
Green architecture is a philosophy that encompasses the entire construction process. The National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) provides guidelines on a sustainable design for the whole project. NIBS has also laid out interrelated objectives that an architect or developer can utilize from the planning through to the utilization stages.
LEED also provides standards that architects should follow when designing green buildings. And, like the NIBS, LEED recommends that a construction process comprise green features right from the first step that entails site development.
So, what’s sustainable site development, and what does it entail?
In simple terms, sustainable site development ensures the preservation of the environment surrounding a construction project. It seeks to conserve natural resources to sustain the current and future generations. Furthermore, this concept aims at striking a balance between environmental conservation and economic prosperity.
Sustainable site development starts from responsible and eco-minded site selection. And it involves the following:
Green architecture encourages the use of sustainable materials in the construction process. The incorporation of these materials makes buildings eco-friendly. Moreover, they enhance the quality of life by minimizing health and environmental hazards.
But, what are sustainable materials?
Sustainable materials are green materials that have passed through eco-friendly processes to enhance durability and sustainability. Therefore, using them during construction will not harm the environment and be cost-effective. Moreover, these materials pose no threat to human life but improve it.
Here are the features of sustainable materials:
Water efficiency is an integral part of green architectural designs. As such, construction involves the installation of water-saving plumbing fixtures. Additionally, it entails incorporating components to clean and recycle gray water to ensure water quality.
Green architecture also advocates for the installation of components to collect rainwater. Additionally, there are systems to regulate water consumption to minimize wastage. Moreover, sustainable designs protect natural water reserves by reducing pollution and over-consumption.
The use of renewable energy sources is vital in green architecture. Architects craft designs that facilitate energy efficiency in buildings. Hence, they ensure minimal energy consumption and wastage to minimize costs.
Green energy advocates for the use of natural and renewable energy sources, including:
Moreover, the philosophy encourages natural lighting by taking maximum advantage of the sun’s position.
Improved Indoor Quality
The use of sustainable materials in construction improves the quality of indoor air. For instance, installing nontoxic materials ensures minimal emission of toxic gases into a building’s interior. Furthermore, it’s preferable to maximize the natural airflow to ventilate buildings.
Green architectural designs recommend the use of eco-friendly air conditioning fixtures. These systems are also effective in heating and cooling. Therefore, they boost the quality of life while minimizing adverse effects on the environment.
Reduced Wastage and Pollution
Since green architecture seeks to conserve the environment, it discourages pollution and waste deposits. Therefore, a building’s design should ensure minimal wastage of resources before, during, and after construction. Moreover, the process shouldn’t pollute the air, water, or soil on the site and the surroundings.
Advantages of Green Architecture
Green architecture provides numerous benefits to the entire ecosystem. These advantages facilitate the concept’s principles, including environmental conservation, energy/water efficiency, waste reduction, and sustainable materials. Therefore, it encourages humans to promote biodiversity and protect the environment, creating a safe planet for all organisms.
Let’s have a closer look at these benefits:
Examples of buildings that have incorporated green architecture include:
Green architecture is a long-lived philosophy that calls for environmental conservation in the construction industry.
The concept has evolved, paving the way for modern organizations that provide guidelines and standards on green buildings. Hence, it’s a promising approach that’ll help preserve natural resources and sustain life for many generations.